1. There are seven cervical vertebrae. How many cervical spinal roots are there?
d. 4 cervical (the rest are brachial)
2. What is the function of denticulate ligament?
a. Stabilisation of medial atlanto-axial joint between dens (odontoid process) and articular facet of C1
b. Stabilisation of lateral atlanto-axial joint between dens (odontoid process) and lateral facets of C1
c. Stabilisation of atlanto-occipital joint between C1 and cranium
d. Stabilisation of spinal cord within the vertebral canal
3. The ligamentum flavum consists of right and left halves that join together. In what areas (levels) is this midline fusion frequently incomplete?
a. Cervical and upper thoracic
c. Lower thoracic
4. In childhood, the sacral vertebrae are connected by cartilage and only later they fuse to form the bone. At what stage does this happen?
a. Around year 5
b. Around year 9
c. Around year 12-13
d. After puberty
5. Which of the following book names has some connection with spinal anatomy?
6. We are all familiar with the ligamentum flavum. Do you know what the word “flavum” means?
a. It is named after the colosseum – latin “amphiteatrum flavium” due to proximity of the vertebral column
b. Comes from word “Flave” – to be smooth, error free, visually outstanding to highlight high success using the LOR technique
c. Comes from “flavor” or “flavour” as the ligamentum flavum was used as special spice for certain meals in middle ages
d. It is often used in scientific names for animals and plants to refer to the yellow colour
7. Tuffier’s (intercristal) line:
a. Reliably identifies the L4/L5 interspace
b. Was described for the first time in France by Theodore Tuffier in 1900
c. Was described for the first time in New York by George W Jacoby in 1895
d. Was originally described to measure the length of lower limbs in patients with Rickets disease
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